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Exposure to violence in early childhood increases the risk for an individual to become violent in their own home.
In 2004, 44% of the Chilean population was living in poverty, and studies have shown that low socioeconomic status and stressful life events are positively correlated with domestic violence.
Household factors include size, density and violence history.
Community and societal factors include media violence, poverty level, crime rate, and environmental conditions.
Specialized domestic violence courts are designed to improve victim safety and enhance defendant accountability.
They emerged as a problem-solving court in the 1980s and 1990s in response to frustration among victim advocates, judges and attorneys who saw the same litigants cycling through the justice system again and again.
Another response, however—the problem solving response—is to try to design court programs that explicitly take into account the special characteristics that domestic violence cases present.
Women are clearly the most likely to become victims of domestic violence, but other members of the household are also at risk for victimization.
Throughout history, women have been viewed by society as subordinate to men, leaving them susceptible to abuse by their male partners.
Additionally, the home has been viewed as an essentially private institution, impeding lawmakers from moving forward with policies against domestic violence.
These numbers and the efforts of domestic violence advocates have led, over the last 20 years, to changes in the criminal justice response to such offenses.
Some of the greatest changes occurred in the 1990s, with the passage of the federal Violence Against Women Act.
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The Center for Court Innovation also has a grant from the National Institute of Justice to document the number and types of domestic violence courts in the United States.